1. Helmick CG, Felson DT, Lawrence RC, et al. National Arthritis Data Workgroup. Estimates of prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States, Part I. Arthritis Rheum 2008;58: 15-25.   

  2. Vivino, F. B. (2017). Sjogren’s syndrome: Clinical aspects. 2017;182: 48–54.

  3. Brito-zerón, P, Theander, E, Baldini, C. et al, Quartuccio, L, Bootsma, H, … Fox, R. Early diagnosis of primary Sjögren’ s syndrome : EULAR-SS task force clinical recommendations. Expert Review of Clinical Immunology, 2016; 12(2): 137–156.

  4. Criswell, LA, Shiboski, C H, Shiboski, SC, Labetoulle, M, Lietman,TM, Rasmussen, A, … Mariette, X. (2016).  American College of Rheumatology / European League Against Rheumatism Classification Criteria for Primary Sjogren’s Syndrome.Arthritis Rheum 2017; 69(1): 35-45.

  5. Bournia V-K, Vlachoyiannopoulous PG. Subgroups of Sjogren syndrome patients according to serologic profiles. Journal of Autoimmunity 2012;39: 15-26.

  6. Didlier K, Bloko L, et al. Autoantibodies Associated with Connective Tissue Diseases: What Meaning for Clinicians? Front Immunol 2018;9: 1-20.

7. Carsons S (1998) The New Sjogren’s Syndrome Handbook Carsons,S, Harris E (Eds.)  New York: The Medical Workup   of Sjogren's Syndrome.  Oxford University Press.

8.  Demarchi J, Papasidero S, Medina,MA, et al.Primary Sjogren’s syndrome: Extraglandular manifestations and       hydroxychloroquine therapy.Clin Rheum 2017;36(11): 2455-2460.

9. Sandhu P, Ambrus Jr. JL. Novel Autoantibodies in Sjogren’s Syndrome. J Immunol Clin Res 2017; 4(1): 1034.

10. Ng, WF (ed). (2016) Sjogren's Syndrome. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press


11. Baldini C, Ferro F, Elefante E. Bombardieri S. Biomarkers for Sjogren’s Syndrome. Biomark Med 2018;12(3): 275-286.


12.Ramos-Casals M, Brito-Zeron P, Seror R, Bootsma H, Bowman S, Dorner T…Vitali C. on behalf of EULAR Sjogren Syndrome Task Force.Characterization of systemic disease in primary Sjogren’s syndrome: EULAR-SS Task Force recommendations for articular, cutaneous, pulmonary and renal involvements. Rheumatology 2015;54: 2230-2238.

13. Sheikh S, Shaw-Stiffel T. The gastrointestinal manifestations of Sjogren’s syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 1995; 90(1): 9-14.

14. Fox RI. Advances in understanding, diagnosing, and treating Sjogren syndrome.


15. Beckman KA, Luchs J, Milner MS, Ambrus JL Jr. The potential role for early biomarker testing as part of a modern, multidisciplinary approach to Sjogren’s syndrome diagnosis. Adv Ther 2017;34(4): 799-812.

16. Ferro F, Vagelli R, Bruni C, Cafaro G, Marcucci E, Bartoloni E, Baldini C.One year in review 2016: Sjogren’s syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2016;34: 161-171.

17. Fisher BA, Jonsson R, Daniels T, Bombardieri M, Brown R, Morgan P, Bombardieri S…Barone F on behalf of the Sjogren’s histopathology workshop group, EULAR Sjogren’s syndrome study group. Standardization of labial salivary gland histopathology in clinical trials in primary Sjogren’s Syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis 2017;76: 1161-1168.

18. Fox, PC. Is a lip biopsy 100 % accurate?The Moisture Seekers, March 2018.(p.17)


19. Serin G, Karabulut G, Kabasakal Y, Kandiloglu G, Akalin T. The importance of minor salivary gland biopsy in Sjogren syndrome diagnosis and the clinicopathological correlation. Turk Patoloji Derg. 2016;32(2):65-9.


20. Rekston TR, Jonsson MV. Sjogren’s syndrome: An update on epidemiology and current insights on pathophysiology. Oromaxillofacial Surg Clin N Am 2014;26(1): 1-12


21. Akpek EK, Bunya VY, Saldanha IF.Ocular manifestations of primary Sjogren’s: what you don’t know might surprise you. Sjogren’s Quarterly; 13 (3) Summer 2018.


22. Hammitt KM, Naegeli AN, van den Broek, RWM, Birt, JA. Patient burden of Sjogren’s: a comprehensive literature review revealing the range and heterogeneity of measures used in assessments of severity. Rmdopen2017; 3(2)-e000443

23. Rasmussen A, Radfar L, Lewis D, Grundahl K, Stone DU, Kaufman CE, … Scofiled RH. Previous diagnosis of Sjogren’s syndrome as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatology 2016 Jul;55(7): 1195-201.


24. Brito-Zeron, P, Ramos-Casals M.Systemic Sjogrens: More than a sicca disease. 

25. Sjogren’s Syndrome Foundation.Breakthrough Goal survey results 2016. Polaris Marketing Research; 2016.


26. Ng, Wan-Fai.Primary Sjogren’s syndrome: Too dry and too tired. Rheumatology 2010;49: 844-853.

27. Segal G, Bowman S et al. Primary Sjogren’s syndrome: health experiences and predictors of health quality among patients in the United States.Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2009 ;7:46 

28. Dusenbery, M.  Doing Harm. 2018, New York: HarperCollins


30. Brito-Zeron P, Ramos-Casals M, et al. Predicting adverse outcomes in primary Sjogren’s syndrome: identification of prognostic factors. Rheumatology 2007;46:1359-1362

32. McCoy SS, Baer AN.Neurological Complications of Sjogren’s Syndrome: Diagnosis and Management. Curr Treatm Opt Rheumatol 2017; 3(4):275-288



33. Goodman BP, Crepeau A, Dhawan PS, Khoury JA, Harris L. Spectrum of autonomic nervous system impairment in Sjogren syndrome. The Neurologist 2017;22:127-130.

34. Bunya, VY, Fernandez, KG et al. Survey of ophthalmologists regarding practice patterns for dry eye and Sjogren syndrome.  Eye & Contact Lens 2018;44:S196-S201.

35. Akpek EK, Mathews, P et al. Ocular and systemic morbidity in a longitudinal cohort of Sjogren’s syndrome  Ophthalmology 2015;122:56-61

36. Kabasakal Y, Kitapcioglu G et al.  Criteria sets for primary Sjogren’s syndrome are not adequate for those presenting with extraglandular organ involvements as their dominant clinical features.  Rheumatol Int (2017) 37:675–684

37. Seror R, Bowman SJ, Brito-Zeron P…Mariette X, on behalf of the EULAR Sjogren’s Task Force.EULAR Sjogren’s Syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI): a user guide. RMD Open 2015;1:e000022.'s_syndrome_disease_activity_index_ESSDAI_a_user_guide

38. Ramos-Casals M, Brito-Zeron P… Kostov B on behalf of the SS Study Group and Autoimmune Diseases Study Group (GEAS) of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine.  Systemic involvement in primary Sjogren’s syndrome evaluated by the EULAR-SS disease activity index: analysis of 921 Spanish patients (GEAS-SS Registry).  Rheumatology 2014;53:321-331


39. Flament T, Bigot A Chaigne et al. Pulmonary manifestations of Sjogren’s syndrome. European Respiratory Review 2016; 25: 110-123


40. Alpek  EK, Bunya VY, Saldanha IJ.  Sjogren’s Syndrome: More than just dry eye. Cornea 2019 Jan 22.

41.  Tiensvoll AB, Goransson LG.  High headache-related disability in patients with systemic lupus erythematosis and primary Sjogren’s syndrome.  Eur J Neruol 2014;21(8):1124-30


42. Brito-Zeron, Baldinia, Bootsma…Ramos-Casals.Sjogren’ Syndrome. 2016 Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2016;2:1-20.

43. Sutcliffe N, Stoll T et al.Functional disability and end-organ damage in patients with systemic lupus and Sjogren’s syndrome. J Rheumatol 1998;25(1):63-68

44. Strömbeck B, Ekdahl C, Manthorpe R, et al. Health-related quality of life in primary Sjögren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia compared to normal population data using SF-36.  Scand J Rheumatol. 2000; 29(1):20–281.


45. Mirouse A, Seror, Vicaut E… Mekinian A on behelf of Club Rheumatismes Inflammation and SNFMI.Arthritis in primary Sjogren’s syndrome: Characteristics, outcome and treatment from a French multicenter retrospective study. Autoimmun Rev. 2019 Jan;18(1):9-14


46. Wallace, DJ. (2012). .Sjogren’s Syndrome Foundation.Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.


47. Both T, Dalm VASH, van Hagen PM, van Daele PLA. Reviewing primary Sjogren’s syndrome:beyond the dryness- From pathohysiology to diagnosis and treatment.  Int J Med Sci 2017; (14): 191-200.   

48. Tjensvoll AB.(2016). Headache in systemic lupus erythematosus and Primary Sjogren’s syndrome.

     (Doctoral dissertation, University of Bergen)

49. Ng W-F, Stangroom AJ, Davidson A, Wilton K, Mitchell S, Newton JL. Primary Sjogrens syndrome is associated with impaired autonomic response to orthostasis and sympathetic failure.  Q J Med 2012; 105:1191-1199.  Open Access


50. Newton, JL, Frith J, Powell … Ng, WF on behalf of the UK primary Sjogren’s syndrome registry. Autonomic symptoms are common and are associated with overall symptom burden and disease activity in primary Sjogren’s Syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis 2012;71: 1973-1979   Open Access


51.  Koh JH, Kwok SK, Lee Jet al.  Autonomic dysfunction in primary Sjogren’s syndrome: a prospective cohort analysis of 154 Korean patients.  Korean J Intern Med 2017;32:165-173


52. Mori K, Iijima M, Koike H…Sobue G.The wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in Sjogren syndrome-associated neuropathy. Brain 2005; 128: 2518-2534.        


53.  Kovacs L, Paprika, D, Takacs R,. Pokorny G. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in primary Sjogren’s syndrome. Rheumatology 2004;43(1):95-99

54. Stojan G, Baer AN, Danoff SK. Pulmonary manifestations of Sjogren’s syndrome.Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2013; 13(4); 354-360.


55, Ocon Aj, Messer ZR, Medow MS, Stewart JM. Increasing orthostatic stress impairs neurocognitive functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin Sci 2012: 122 (5):227-238.

56.  Carsons SE, Vivino FB, Parke A… Mandel S.Treatment guidelines for Rheumatologic manifestations of Sjogren’s:Use of biologics, management of fatigue and inflammatory musculoskeletal pain. Arthritis Care Res 2017:  Apr;69(4):517-527.

57.Price EH, Rauz S, Tappuni AR… Bowman, SJ; on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology Standards, Guideline and Audit Working Group. The British Society for Rheumatology guideline for management of adults with primary Sjogren’s syndrome.Rheumatology. 2017: Oct 1;56(10):1828

58. Price EJ, Baer AN. How to treat Sjogren’s syndrome.Rheumatology, 2019, Feb. 15. (epub ahead of print)

59. Thomas Jr., DE.   The Lupus Encyclopedia, a Comprehensive Guide for Patients and Families. 2014.  Johns Hopkins University Press.

Updated 7-17-19