This Steps to Diagnosis page arose out of Dr. Sarah Schafer's teaching experience with PCPs.  Many PCPs have expressed the need for practical steps for use in the clinic setting. The teaching curriculum was created with the support of several rheumatologists with Sjogren's expertise. This page is not an “official” guideline approved by the Sjogen's Foundation, any medical board or rheumatology organization. 


Clinicians should use their best judgement, taking into account each patient’s unique needs as well as the medical system that they work in. In an ideal world, this content would be taught routinely during medical education.  


Scattered and sometimes vague symptoms such as "The SJOGRENS TRIAD"  are often the earliest symptoms. There are many exceptions as noted below

Have a high index of suspicion when adults, particularly women, present with greater than 3 months of:

1. Flu-like fatigue.  Ranges from mild to severe. 

2. Widespread muscle and/or joint pain.  Anyone with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia.  


Even if a patient has a diagnosis of thryoid disease or fibromyalgia, these conditions do not rule out Sjogren’s. Take a second look!


3. Sicca-   Dry, irritated eyes and/or mouth.  Patients often do not recognize or mention sicca symptoms.  See Step 2 for Sicca Screening tool.  

The Triad

Red flags Sjogren’s should be high in the differential     

  • Parotitis/sialadenitis- persistent or recurrent

  • MALT lymphoma, especially of major salivary glands

  • Interstitial lung disease or kidney disease

  • Primary biliary cholangitis

  • Autoimmune hepatitis

  • Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, normocytic anemia

  • Hypergammaglobulinemia

  • Cutaneous vasculitis or annular erythema/cutaneous lupus

  • NMO, or MS type symptoms without typical MRI or CSF findings.

  • Distal Rental tubular acidosis; hypokalemia

  • Esophageal dysmotility/difficulty swallowing

  • POTS and other CV dysautonomias may present with dizziness, tachycardia. 

Common presenting primary complaints 

  • Chronic cough, often dry

  • Recurrent/ chronic sinusitis

  • GERD, GI pain, chronic nausea, “irritable bowel,” constipation, SIBO

  • Recurrent oral/ vaginal candidiasis

  • Vaginal dryness/ painful intercourse

  • Interstitial cystitis

  • Constitutional symptoms: fever, enlarged lymph nodes, unintentional weight loss

  • “Brain fog”-difficulty concentrating, functioning at work

  • Dry, irritated eyes, blurred vision

  • Dry mouth, severe or unexplained dental caries

  • Neuropathies:  PN, dysautonomias, others

  • Raynaud’s phenomenon

  • "Fibromyalgia"

It is essential to keep a high index of suspicion in adult women who have multiple seemingly unrelated complaints. Sjogren's often has an incomplete presentation, especially early in the disease.


Always screen for sicca in the setting of ongoing unexplained fatigue,widespread pain, red flags or common presenting complaints

Patients may not recognize sicca symptoms as abnormal or important.  Sicca is more complex than just dryness. If patients answer NO to “do you have dry eyes or dry mouth?” ask the following quick questions:


Gritty, "sand in eyes" sensation?

Foreign body sensation?

Pain, burning

Blurring, blinking to correct vision?

Restasis, Xiidra or artificial tears > tid?


Trouble speaking?

Need liquids to swallow food?                                                                   

Food or pills get stuck?     


Severe, unexplained caries?                          

80 % of Sjogren’s patients have sicca at presentation. This means 20 % do not. (3)

Conversely, not all sicca is due to Sjogren’s.  Other causes include medications, radiation treatment, diabetes, HCV, HIV, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, IgG-4 syndrome and others. Fibromyalgia is often associated with a dry eye sensation, or may be the diagnosis given to patients with incomplete Sjogren's presentations.  Rheumatology expertise is helpful to sort through the possibilities. (4)


  • Skin- overt signs of dryness.  Cutaneous vasculitis or annular erythema/ subcutaneous lupus.  Raynaud’s phenomenon

  • Head and neck- Palpate for adenopathy, parotid swelling/masses

  • Oral - saliva under tongue, dental decay, bright red tongue often seen with candida (vs. cottage cheese appearance). 

  • Eyes- most changes are seen using special dyes and slit lamp exam. 
    Blepharitis/ conjunctival erythema may be noted on gross exam.  

  • Heart and lungs- crackles may indicate interstitial lung disease.

  • GI- diffuse, mild tenderness common.  Palpate RUQ and epigastric area for focal tenderness (less common)

  • GU- tenderness w/ bladder palpation

  • Neuro- Note gait, sensory changes hands and feet.  If tachycardia, or reports of syncope or pre-syncope, arrange follow-up evaluation for CV dysautonomias.

  • Ortho-  joints, esp. hands and feet, for tenderness and swelling.   

Sjogren’s patients tend to look well, even when they feel quite ill.  Routine physical examination may be completely normal.

STEP 4 : INITIAL LABS (suggested)

Order Initial Sjogren’s labs if Sjogren’s triad or red flags.  Also consider when common presenting complaints are: 

  • Scattered, multisystem

  • Persistent or recurring

  • Associated with fatigue, pain and/or sicca

 A positive family history of any autoimmune disease should tip the scale toward evaluation

Initial Sjogren's Labs

  •  ANA, SS-A, (? SS-B), CCP, RF, ESR, CRP    (titers not ~ disease severity)    

  •  CBC with diff and platelets, serum potassium, LFTs

  •  UA, Random urine protein/Cr

  •  HIV, HEP C       

  •  Minor salivary gland biopsy (MSGB)- if SS-A  negative- Usually via rheumatology consult.

STEP 5: Referral to a rheumatologist  

Even if your patient has a textbook Sjogren’s presentation and a positive SS-A, a rheumatologist with Sjogren’s expertise should confirm the diagnosis as well as look for other rheumatologic diseases that often co-exist with Sjogren's. Most rheumatologists prefer completion of preliminary lab work prior to referral.They typically often order additional tests for further evaluation. 


The role of Classification Criteria vs. clinical diagnosis   

Unfortunately, a significant minority of rheumatologists remain out of touch with present-day Sjogren’s diagnosis and treatment.  Some are unaware of the limitations of the Classification Criteria, and use them as a stringent requirement for diagnosis.  As a referring provider, it is important that you understand the role of Classification Criteria in diagnosis.  Sjogren’s patients may be quite ill.  Many get serious complications.  They deserve timely diagnosis and specialty care.  

I often I hear stories from other patients who are (incorrectly) told that they can’t have the disease without a positive test for Sjogren’s antibodies. Even with a Sjogren’s diagnosis, some patients are told that they don’t need special care, or that the disease is not serious.  If a patient runs into these roadblocks, they should seek a second opinion from a Rheumatologist who is more experienced with Sjogren’s.

Updated 4-26-20

I welcome comments and questions but please do not write to me asking for personal medical advice. 

This website is for education and information purposes only

and does not substitute for medical diagnosis and treatment.

Please consult with your clinician about your medical care.   

Sjogren’s Advocate is completely independent of the Sjogren’s Foundation.

I am solely responsible for the content herein.

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