Self Advocacy for diagnosis

Working with PCPs


These strategies are geared toward working with PCPs and other non-rheumatology providers.  You may find these tools helpful even if you end up with a diagnosis other than Sjogren's. Because current tests for Sjogren’s have limited accuracy, referral to an experienced rheumatologist is a crucial step. This section does not address self-advocacy with your rheumatologist, although many of the concepts will apply. 

Tips:  To prepare for your PCP visit, see Appointment Agenda Form.

Who initiates a Sjogren's evaluation?

  1.  Patients:  Due to excellent online resources such as, increasing numbers of patients request evaluation for Sjogren’s.  

  2.  PCPs or ophthalmologists may recognize possible Sjogren’s and order preliminary lab tests.

  3. Non-rheumatology specialists (ENTs, dentists, others) may refer patients to rheumatology for evaluation when Sjogren’s or other connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are suspected.

  4. A Rheumatologist may evaluate based on clinician referral, or occasionally patient self-referral.  Patients and non-rheumatology providers often do not suspect Sjogren’s or any other CTD unless joint pain is a predominant feature.

Who diagnoses Sjogren's?

While PCPs or others may order initial tests, a rheumatologist should confirm the diagnosis. Even if Sjogren’s seems clearly evident, it is important to rule out mimics, overlapping conditions, and additional autoimmune diseases. Many Sjogren’s patients have more than one autoimmune disease.

Why is it important to diagnose Sjogren's?  

Sjogren’s is a serious, systemic, often progressive disease that requires ongoing rheumatologic and other specialty care.   

Early diagnosis and treatment can reduce progression and complications. 

What are common barriers to diagnosis? 

 In addition to the many barriers listed in Delayed Diagnosis, appointment time constraints and a shortage of rheumatologists (29) contribute to the challenge. 

Misinformation about Sjogren’s diagnosis remains a problem.  Some rheumatologists insist that Classification Criteria be fully met, even though a significant number of Sjogren's patients do not meet them. Some rheumatologists require a positive SS-A before they will diagnose a patient, especially when minor salivary gland biopsy is not readily available. This leaves many patients undiagnosed.

Making the most of your PCP visit

Prepare for your visit ahead of time

1. Appointment Agenda.  Write a succinct medical history that focuses on your current problem.  Circle 2-3 priorities that you want to address. Bring two copies to your visit.


2. Additional documents:  If you are seeing a new provider, find out if you can email your  Appointment agenda, Medication list,  Current symptoms and health issues, and Past Medical History in advance. Bring extra copies to the visit.


Current Medication List, including supplements and over the counter medications:  Include doses, number of times/day.  Include drug allergies/ adverse reactions on the bottom.


Current symptoms and health issues:

List all active diseases and conditions.  List all current symptoms even if you don't think they are important. Try to give timeline for each item: date started, or number of months or years since onset.



Past Medical History:   Include dates or approximate age 


  • Illnesses and other health conditions

  • Specialty visits: reason and outcome

  • Injuries

  • Hospitalizations

  • Surgeries/ medical procedures

  • Vaccines

  • Childhood illnesses

  • Family history:  Major illnesses, especially rheumatologic disease

  • Women: pregnancy / birth history. Menstrual history, contraception, menopausal status



TIP:  It is helpful to keep a medication list on your computer. Update the list and save as a new document each time a change occurs.

 Strategy during the visit

1. INTRO:   In just a few sentences, state the MAIN reason for your visit


2. Share Appointment Agenda   Discuss 2-3 priorities that you highlighted for today's visit.  Be willing to listen to your clinician's ideas.  They may have some very important concerns that you did not think of. 


TIP:  Give specific examples of how the illness impacts function. Don’t rely on vague descriptions of your symptoms  such as “I’m tired all the time” or “everything hurts.”  Include a time frame.

Fatigue Example:

 I can barely make it through a six hour workday. I need to lie down at lunch. I go straight home to bed, and get nothing else done that day. My diet is terrible- I have no energy to cook or shop. This has been going on for a year.

3.  If you think you could have Sjogren’s, and the clinician seems unfamiliar with it, diplomatically suggest resources.

“I don’t know how much experience you have had with Sjogren’s patients.”I’ve been doing a lot of research because I think I might have it. I found some wonderful resources for PCPs that you may find interesting. Give copy of Initial PCP handout.  Point out that PCPs-STEPs to diagnosis page is available on this site.

A word of caution:

Be careful not to sound blaming or condescending if you think that you know more about Sjogren’s than they do. It is not the PCP's fault that Sjogren's was neglected in their training.  Most PCPs are interested and open to learning about the disease. 


4. Follow- up plan and communication.   Ask about next steps, follow-up visits, and the preferred way to communicate with your clinician.  Most Sjogren’s patients need multiple visits during the process of diagnosis.

Collaborative Communication

Civility and mutual respect are essential for creating a collaborative relationship.  Clinicians are humans too!  Most people go into medicine because they want to help.  They may not be familiar with your disease, or even be a highly skilled communicator, but treat them with respect and give them the benefit of the doubt.


Clinicians cannot possibly learn the details of more than 10,000 diseases.  They rely on medical education programs to tell them what is important to know.  Although Sjogren’s is a common, serious, life-altering disease, it continues to be neglected by teaching programs. In other words, the individual  PCP who knows little about Sjogren's should not be blamed. They are almost always interested in learning.

Do not spend time complaining about negative experiences with other clinicians.  If you are concerned that you carry a label of being difficult or psychosomatic, focus on saying you are hoping for a fresh look at your symptoms.  


Examples of Collaborative statements: 

“I’m hoping we can work together to get to the bottom of this.”


 "Do you think you can help me figure out if this is Sjogren’s?”

Coping with Specific Challenges


Many patients feel a double bind: strong emotions can lead to being labeled as psychogenic.  On the other hand, a stoic approach may create the impression that you are not that sick.


Expression of certain strong emotional displays, particularly anger and hostility, can sabotage your visit, and possibly your reputation as a patient. 


  It can help to practice your opening statement before you go into the appointment. If you tend to cry easily (even without tears), consider bringing a supportive ally into the room who can help communicate your concerns.


Many PCPs were taught that Sjogren’s is just a nuisance disease, all about dryness. If your provider seems unfamiliar with the serious and systemic nature of the disease, they may feel no sense of urgency regarding diagnosis. They may focus on conditions, such as depression or fibromyalgia, that they are more familiar with.  The good news is that many PCPs are open to learning about Sjogren’s.



  • General- give specific examples of how your symptoms impact function.

  • “Do you think that___is important for my main problem?”

  • “I think more is going on here.”

  • “Yes, I could have fibromyalgia. I would also like to consider the possibility of Sjogren’s.”



General:  “Can you tell me about your experience with Sjogren’s patients?” 

If you need to get their attention: Refer to Initial PCP handout. Point out that:

“Sjogren’s is now understood to be a systemic disease. Any organ system can be involved.”

“10 % of Sjogren’s patients die directly from their disease. That sounds serious to me”.  (24, 30)


Sometimes in the face of uncertainty, clinicians will go to default explanations. Women, in particular, are likely to have their symptoms attributed to stress, depression, or anxiety. Menopause, obesity or fibromyalgia are often blamed for Sjogren’s symptoms.


Do not assume that the clinician is not well meaning. Implicit bias is often learned from peers and mentors in medical training.Female patients in particular should be prepared to respond to psychologizing statements.  Have responses to anticipated biases ready to go.

Common Biases - Possible Responses


Fat Bias:

  • “I have been overweight for decades. This problem is new. I feel sick. I want help with that today.”

  • “I’m happy to discuss my weight at our next visit. Today I want to focus on my symptoms.”


Age bias (old):  (What do you expect at your age?) 

  • “Yes, a lot of people my age have pain. But this is new and associated with stiffness and overwhelming fatigue. I can no longer do___.”

  • “I know people feel more tired as they age. This is not normal tired. This is unrelenting, flu-like fatigue that does not respond to rest.”


Age bias (young): 

  • “Young people get serious diseases too. I want an evaluation. I think I might have Sjogren’s. Do you think that you can work with me to figure out what is going on? “

  • If they tell you Sjogren’s is a disease of older women: “Sjogren’s is often diagnosed decades after the first symptoms appear. Sjogren’s is probably not rare in young women, it is just rarely diagnosed in young women!"


More Gender bias/ response to psychological labels:

  • “No, I don’t feel stressed about the holidays. I’m here because I’m very sick and I need your help to figure out what is going on.”

  • “Yes, I’m menopausal. But I’m not just tired and dry. I can barely swallow, my eyes burn all of the time, and my fatigue feels like I have the flu every day. This is not normal!”

  • “Depressed people don’t have this attitude: I want to get back to my life and do all of the things I love to do, such as_____. That is physical illness."

  • " Of course I'm stressed! That is a normal response to having an undiagnosed serious illness."

Updated 4-25-20